The Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) has published guidelines for issuing temporary authorisations and spectrum to service providers, vendors and academic institutions or other research organisations for technology trials. The ‘Framework for Test and Development of Future Technologies (Particularly Fifth Generation [5G] Wireless Networks)’ establishes the rules for the allocation and use of radio spectrum on a trial basis for non-commercial purposes, such as technology trials and equipment tests as well as for academic and research purposes. The document does not restrict which bands the spectrum must be in, simply stating that the frequencies can include – but are not limited to – airwaves in the 2.6GHz, 3.6GHz and millimetre wave (mmWave) ranges. There is no charge from the government for the temporary licences, which have a duration of either three or six months but may be extended, subject to approval from the PTA. The guidelines state that any interconnection with public telephone networks must first be approved by the regulator, any publicity material for the trial must similarly be greenlit by the PTA, and the authorisation holders must not claim to be a service provider based on the temporary licence.