Pakistan’s Task Force of National Response Centre for Cyber Crimes (NR3C) has shut down 31 illegal voice-over-internet protocol (VoIP) businesses since February this year, local media outlet The News writes. NR3C conducted raids in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore and Karachi, seizing equipment worth approximately PKR700 million (USD6.8 million). The loss to the exchequer halted by the raids was estimated to be PKR300 million per month. Illegal VoIP traffic reportedly increased significantly from late 2012, when the creation of the International Clearing House (ICH) led to a hike in tariffs for international calls. The NR3C was constituted on the orders of the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) to take immediate action against individuals and companies involved in the business of grey traffic and its trading, in close coordination with the Director General (Enforcement) of the hamstrung sector watchdog Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA).